In 1902, the Viennese physician Alfred Adler was invited by Sigmund Freud to join the "Wednesday Psychological Society". However, Adler, for whom the pracitcal application of theories was also of major importance, split from the group in order to found his own psychoanalytic school in 1911. Along with the treatment of mental disorders he focussed on preventing them: The counselling centres and outpatients clinics of those times essentially added to Vienna's high reputation in health care.
In 1912, Adler's major work "The Neurotic Character" was published in which he described his key theses on the dynamics of self-esteem regulation.
From 1933 on, Adler gradually shifted his working focus to the USA. He died in 1937 in Scotland while on a lecture tour.